OPERATING SYSTEM

Presentation

Operating System types

As computers have progressed and developed, so have the operating systems. Below is a basic list of the types of operating systems and a few examples of operating systems that fall into each of the types. Many computer operating systems will fall into more than one of the below types.

GUI – Short for Graphical User Interface, a GUI operating system contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by using a computer mouse. See the GUI definition for a complete definition. Examples of GUI operating systems are:

System 7.x
Windows 98
Windows CE

Multi-user – A multi-user operating system allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and different times. See the multi-user definition for a complete definition. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are:

Linux
Unix
Windows 2000

Multiprocessing – An operating system capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are:

Linux
Unix
Windows XP

Multitasking – An operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are:

Linux
Unix
Windows 8

Multithreading – Operating systems that allow different parts of a software program to run concurrently. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are:

Linux
Unix
Windows XP

 

 

 

Linux: Howto Make a Directory Command

in COMMANDS, FILE SYSTEM, LINUX

How do I make directory under Linux operating systems using the command prompt or bash shell?

You need to use the mkdir command to create new folders or directories under Linux operating systems. A directory (also known as folder in MS-Windows/OS X) is nothing but a container for other directories and files.

mkdir command Syntax

The mkdir command has the following syntax:

mkdir dirname
OR
mkdir dirname1 dirname2
OR
mkdir [option] dieNameHere
OR
mkdir -p dir1/dir2/dir3

Examples

Open a terminal and use the mkdir command to create empty directories. The following command would create a directory called foo:
$ mkdir foo
To list directories, enter:
$ ls
$ ls -l

The following command would create two directories within the current directory:
$ mkdir tom jerry
$ ls -l

The -p option allows you to create parent directories as needed (if parent do not already exits). For example, you can create the following directory structure:
$ mkdir -p ~/public_html/images/trip

Sample mkdir demo

Animated gif 01: mkdir in action under Linux / Unix like operating systems

Animated gif 01: mkdir in action under Linux / Unix like operating systems

 

 


Delete / Remove a Directory Linux Command

a] rmdir command – Deletes the specified empty directories.

b] rm command – Delete the file including sub-directories.

The rm command removes (deletes) files or directories.

Syntax- rmdir command

The rmdir command remove the DIRECTORY(ies), if they are empty. The syntax is:

rm [OPTION]... FILE...
rmdir directory-name
 rmdir [option] directory-name

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Definition  :  An operating system or OS is a software on the hard drive that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. Without a computer operating system, a computer and software programs would be useless. The picture to the right is an example of Microsoft Windows XP, a popular operating system and what the box may look like if you were to purchase it from a local retail store.

Common desktop operating systems include Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. While each OS is different, they all provide a graphical user interface, or GUI, that includes a desktop and the ability to manage files and folders. They also allow you to install and run programs written for the operating system. While Windows and Linux can be installed on standard PC hardware, Mac OS X can only run on Macintosh computers. Therefore, the hardware you choose affects what operating system(s) you can run.

 

 

Types of Operating System :

As computers have progressed and developed, so have the operating systems. Below is a basic list of the types of operating systems and a few examples of operating systems that fall into each of the types. Many computer operating systems will fall into more than one of the below types.

GUI – Short for Graphical User Interface, a GUI operating system contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by using a computer mouse. See the GUI definition for a complete definition. Examples of GUI operating systems are:

System 7.x
Windows 98
Windows CE

Multi-user – A multi-user operating system allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and different times. See the multi-user definition for a complete definition. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are:

Linux
Unix
Windows 2000

Multiprocessing – An operating system capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are:

Linux
Unix
Windows XP

Multitasking – An operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are:

Linux
Unix
Windows 8

Multithreading – Operating systems that allow different parts of a software program to run concurrently. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are:

Linux
Unix
Windows XP

User Mode and Kernel Mode

Kernel Mode

In Kernel mode, the executing code has complete and unrestricted access to the underlying hardware. It can execute any CPU instruction and reference any memory address. Kernel mode is generally reserved for the lowest-level, most trusted functions of the operating system. Crashes in kernel mode are catastrophic; they will halt the entire PC.

User Mode

In User mode, the executing code has no ability to directly access hardware or reference memory. Code running in user mode must delegate to system APIs to access hardware or memory. Due to the protection afforded by this sort of isolation, crashes in user mode are always recoverable. Most of the code running on your computer will execute in user mode.

 

 

 

 

Advertisements